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Publications

The ACHILLES team have been publishing quite prolifically. Since 2010 we have published more than 100 papers on a range of subjects related to the deterioration of infrastructure earthworks and the impact on transport infrastructure networks.

Below is a reference list of these publications. We are currently working on a narrative that shows the developments in our research and the evolution of scientific thought related to climate change impacts on long-linear infrastructure. We will post this as soon as these become available.

Some examples are shown below. Further down we have collated our publications relevant to ACHILLES. We will gradually update and expand these pages and will provide download links to the documents where we can.

Climate change impacts on slope stability

The early days of discussing climate change impact on slope stability were facilitated by a series of meeting for the CLIFFS network. These discussions resulted in a report in 2008 for the (then) Highways Agency (Dijkstra and Dixon 2008; project 5703/CV/HIG) on the effects of climate change impacts on earthwork slopes. This was followed by a more wide-ranging discussion on the challenges and approaches of climate change and slope stability (Dijkstra and Dixon; 2010). A few years later further developments in our approach, informed by projects such as FUTURENET and our development of the narratives underpinning iSMART, were published in Dijkstra et al. (2014) where we set out the theoretical approach to gaining a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on transport infrastructure. A further update on the state of climate change impacts on slopes was published in the book on Slope Safety Preparedness of the Effects of Climate Change edited by Ho et al., (2017; Dijkstra et al., 2017).

Dijkstra, T., Dixon, N., Crosby, C., Frost, M., Gunn, D., Fleming, P., & Wilks, J. (2014). Forecasting infrastructure resilience to climate change. Proceedings of the ICE-Transport, 167(5), 269-280.

Dijkstra TA and Dixon N (2010). Climate change and slope stability: Challenges and approaches. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology,  43(4), 371-385

Dijkstra, T., Jenkins, G., Gunn, D., Dashwood, C., Dankers, R., Dixon, N., Petley, D., Gibson, A., Winter, M. (2017) Chapter 13: Landslides and Climate Change in the United Kingdom. In: Ho, K. Lacasse, S. and Picarelli, L. (eds.) Slope Safety Preparedness of the Effects of Climate Change. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 437-471p.

Hydraulic conductivity of the near surface in engineered clay slopes

The long-term performance of engineered (e.g. cuttings and embankment) clay slopes is influenced by seasonal cycles of weather, which drive cycles of pore water pressures and hence stress changes. These can lead to progressive failure of the slope. The rate at which water (i.e. rainfall) enters the slope through infiltration is dependent on hydraulic conductivity, often termed permeability, of the near surface. However, there is a dearth of measurements in the literature on this critical material property. Dixon et al. (2019) describe field measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity conducted by the iSMART project partners at several exemplar embankment and cutting slopes on the UK transport network formed of intermediate and high plasticity clay soils. Dixon et al. (2019) reports 143 individual measurements and considers the factors that influence the spatial and temporal variability obtained. The test methods employed produce near saturated conditions and flow under constant head. For an embankment, hydraulic conductivity was found to vary by five orders of magnitude in the slope near-surface (0–0.3 m depth), decreasing by four orders of magnitude between 0.3 and 1.2 m depth. This extremely high variability is in part due to seasonal temporal changes controlled by soil moisture content, which can account for up to 1.5 orders of magnitude of this variability. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity at a cutting also indicated a four orders of magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity for the near-surface, with strong depth dependence of a two orders of magnitude decrease from 0.2 to 0.6 m depth. The main factor controlling the large range is found to be spatial variability in the soil macro-structure generated by wetting–drying cycle driven desiccation and roots. The measurements of hydraulic conductivity reported were undertaken to inform and provide a benchmark for the hydraulic parameters used in numerical models of groundwater flow. This is an influential parameter in simulations incorporating the combined weather–vegetation–infiltration–soil interaction mechanisms that are required to assess the performance and deterioration of earthwork slopes in a changing climate.  

Dixon, N., Crosby, C.J., Stirling, R., Hughes, P.N., Smethurst, J., Briggs, K., Hughes, D., Gunn, D., Hobbs, P., Loveridge, F., Glendinning, S., Dijkstra, T. and Hudson, A. (2019). Measurement of near surface saturated hydraulic conductivity in engineered clay slopes. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol. 52, pp. 123–135, DOI 10.1144/qjegh2017-059.

Developing better insights from full-scale testing; BIONICS

The BIONICS embankment has resulted in a considerable database of observations from a wide range of tests. We will soon post an overview of all the publications derived from this asset.

A selection of references from the team

Ali Rahman, Z., Toll, D.G. and Gallipoli, D., 2018. Critical state behaviour of weakly bonded soil in drained state. Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 13(4), pp.233-245.

Asquith, J.D., Kong, L., Toll, D.G. and Liu, G., 2019. Matric Suction and Volume Characteristics of Compacted Clay Soil under Drying and Wetting Cycles. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 43(2).

Bergamo, P., Dashwood, B., Uhlemann, S., Swift, R., Chambers, J.E., Gunn, D.A. and Donohue, S., 2016. Time-lapse monitoring of climate effects on earthworks using surface waves. Geophysics, 81(2), pp.EN1-EN15.

Bergamo, P., Donohue, S., Gunn, D.A., Dashwood, B., Uhlemann, S., Chambers, J.E. and Ward, D., 2015, September. Time-lapse monitoring of the slopes of a heritage earthwork by means of near-surface seismic techniques. In Near Surface Geoscience 2015-21st European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics.

Briggs, K.M., 2011. Impacts of climate and vegetation on railway embankment hydrology (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton).

Briggs, K.M., Smethurst, J.A., Powrie, W. and O’Brien, A.S., 2013. Wet winter pore pressures in railway embankments. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering, 166(5), pp.451-465.

Briggs, K.M., 2010. Charing embankment: climate change impacts on embankment hydrology. Ground Engineering, 43(6), pp.28-31.

Briggs, K.M., Smethurst, J.A., Powrie, W. and O’Brien, A.S., 2016. The influence of tree root water uptake on the long term hydrology of a clay fill railway embankment. Transportation Geotechnics, 9, pp.31-48.

Briggs, K.M., Loveridge, F.A. and Glendinning, S., 2017. Failures in transport infrastructure embankments. Engineering Geology, 219, pp.107-117.

Briggs, K.M., Smethurst, J.A., Powrie, W., O’Brien, A.S. and Butcher, D.J.E., 2013. Managing the extent of tree removal from railway earthwork slopes. Ecological engineering, 61, pp.690-696.

Briggs, K., Smethurst, J. and Powrie, W., 2014. Modelling the influence of tree removal on embankment slope hydrology. In: Sassa, K., Canuti, P. and Yan, Y.P. (eds.) Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. Volume 2: Methods of Landslide Studies. Springer International Publishing. (pp. 241-246).

Castán Broto V, Glendinning S, Dewberry E, Walsh CL, Powell M. 2014. What can we learn about transitions for sustainability from infrastructure shocks?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 84, 186-196.

Castán Broto V, Glendinning S, Dewberry E, Walsh CL, Powell M. 2014. What can we learn about transitions for sustainability from infrastructure shocks?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 84, 186-196.

Chambers, J.E., Meldrum, P., Wilkinson, P.B., Uhlemann, S., Swift, R.T., Inauen, C., Gunn, D., Kuras, O., Whiteley, J. and Kendall, J.M., 2017, December. Towards a geophysical decision-support system for monitoring and managing unstable slopes. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

Chambers, J., Meldrum, P., Gunn, D., Wilkinson, P., Uhlemann, S., Kuras, O. and Swift, R., 2015. Proactive infrastructure monitoring and evaluation (PRIME): a new electrical resistivity tomography system for remotely monitoring the internal condition of geotechnical infrastructure assets. In 3rd International Workshop on Geoelectrical Monitoring (GELMON). 3rd International Workshop on Geoelectrical Monitoring (GELMON).

Chambers, J.E., Gunn, D.A., Wilkinson, P.B., Meldrum, P.I., Haslam, E., Holyoake, S., Kirkham, M., Kuras, O., Merritt, A. and Wragg, J., 2014. 4D electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of soil moisture dynamics in an operational railway embankment. Near Surface Geophysics, 12(1), pp.61-72.

Chambers, J., Wilkinson, P., Meldrum, P. and Gunn, D., 2011. Forward looking remote monitoring technology for proactive planning. Innovation and Research Focus, 87.

Curioni, G., Chapman, D.N., Royal, A.C., Metje, N., Dashwood, B., Gunn, D.A., Inauen, C.M., Chambers, J.E., Meldrum, P.I., Wilkinson, P.B. and Swift, R.T., 2018. TDR potential for soil condition monitoring of geotechnical assets. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Published on the web 31 August 2018.

Davies O, Rouainia M, Glendinning S, Cash TA, Terente V. 2014. Investigation of a pore pressure driven slope failure using a coupled hydro-mechanical model. Engineering Geology 2014, 178, 70-81.

Dijkstra, T., Dixon, N., Crosby, C., Frost, M., Gunn, D., Fleming, P., & Wilks, J. (2014). Forecasting infrastructure resilience to climate change. Proceedings of the ICE-Transport, 167(5), 269-280.

Dijkstra TA and Dixon N (2010). Climate change and slope stability: Challenges and approaches. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology,  43(4), 371-385

Dijkstra, T., Jenkins, G., Gunn, D., Dashwood, C., Dankers, R., Dixon, N., Petley, D., Gibson, A., Winter, M. (2017) Chapter 13: Landslides and Climate Change in the United Kingdom. In: Ho, K. Lacasse, S. and Picarelli, L. (eds.) Slope Safety Preparedness of the Effects of Climate Change. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 437-471p.

Dixon, N., Crosby, C.J., Stirling, R., Hughes, P.N., Smethurst, J., Briggs, K., Hughes, D., Gunn, D., Hobbs, P., Loveridge, F., Glendinning, S., Dijkstra, T. and A. Hudson (2019). In situ measurements of near-surface hydraulic conductivity in engineered clay slopes. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 52(1), 123-135.

Donohue, S., Bergamo, P., Hughes, E., Gunn, D.A., Dashwood, B., Uhlemann, S., Chambers, J.E. and Ward, D., 2015, March. Assessing climate effects on railway earthworks using MASW. In Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2015 (pp. 116-120). Society of Exploration Geophysicists and Environment and Engineering Geophysical Society.

Glendinning, S and Dijkstra T (2015). Save our soils: the UK’s most undervalued asset? Protecting transport infrastructure slopes. International Innovation, 178, 41-44.

Glendinning, S, Helm, PR, Rouainia, M, Stirling, RA, Asquith, JD, Hughes, PN, Toll, DG, Clarke, D, Powrie, W, Smethurst, J Hughes, D, Harley, R,  Karim, R, Dixon, N, Crosby, C, Chambers, J, Dijkstra, T, Gunn, D, Briggs, K, Muddle, D (2015). Research-informed design, management and maintenance of infrastructure slopes: development of a multi-scalar approach. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 012005). IOP Publishing, 22p.

Glendinning S, Hughes P, Helm PR, Chambers J, Mendes J, Gunn D, Wilkinson P, Uhlemann S. 2014. Construction, management and maintenance of embankments used for road and rail infrastructure: implications of weather induced pore water pressures. Acta Geotechnica 2014, 9(5), 799-816.

Gunn, D.A., Chambers, J.E., Dashwood, B.E., Lacinska, A., Dijkstra, T., Uhlemann, S., Swift, R., Kirkham, M., Milodowski, A., Wragg, J. and Donohue, S. (2018). Deterioration model and condition monitoring of aged railway embankment using non-invasive geophysics. Construction and Building Materials, 170, pp.668-678.

Gunn, D.A., Donohue, S., Dashwood, B.A.J., Bergamo, P., Raines, M.G., Uhlemann, S. and Chambers, J.E., 2015. Earthworks ground model development using surface wave surveys: Proceedings of XVI ECSMGE.

Gunn, D.A., Chambers, J.C., Uhlemann, S., Wilkinson, J.B., Meldrum, P.I., Dijkstra, T., Wragg, J. & Hughes, P.N. Hen-Jones, R. & Glendinning S. 2013. Moisture monitoring in clay embankments using electrical resistivity tomography. Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Railway Engineering, London

Gunn, D.A., Reeves, H.J., Chambers, J.E., Wilkinson, P.B., Munro, C.J., Meldrum, P.I., Williams, G.A., Raines, M.J., Haslam, E., Holyoake, S.J. and Wragg, J., 2012. Railway Earthworks: Integrating Ground Investigation Data into Ground Models. CCST 2012, TU Delft.

Helm PR, Davie CT, Glendinning S. 2013. Numerical modelling of shallow abandoned mine working subsidence affecting transport infrastructure. Engineering Geology 2013, 154, 6-19.

Helm P, Stirling RA, Glendinning S. 2016. The Implications of Using Estimated Solar Radiation on the Derivation of Potential Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture Deficit within an Embankment. In: 3rd International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics, Guimaraes, Portugal: Elsevier.

Hen-Jones RM, Hughes PN, Stirling RA, Glendinning S, Chambers JE, Gunn DA, Cui Y-J. 2017. Seasonal effects on geophysical-geotechnical relationships and their implications for electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of slopes. Acta Geotechnica, 12(5), 1159-1173.

Hen-Jones RM, Hughes PN, Glendinning S, Gunn DA, Chambers JC, Wilkinson PB, Uhlemann S. 2014. Determination of moisture content and soil suction in engineered fills using electrical resistivity. In: Sixth International Conference on Unsaturdated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia: CRC Press.

Huang, C., Hughes, P.N., Toll, D.G., Asquith, A.D., Gunn, D.A., Dashwood, B., Uhlemann, S. and Chambers, J.E., 2018. Electrical resistivity and mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soil under multiple cycles of drying and wetting. In 7th International conference on unsaturated soils.

Hughes, D., Karim, M.R., Briggs, K., Glendinning, S., Toll, D., Dijkstra, T., Powrie, W. and Dixon, N., (2015). A Comparison of numerical modelling techniques to predict the effect of climate on infrastructure slopes. Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development. January 2015, 3663-3668.

Hughes, PH, Hen-Jones, R, Stirling, RA, Glendinning, S, Gunn, DA, Chambers, JE, Dijkstra, TA, Smethurst, J, Flesjo, K (2016). Challenges in monitoring and managing engineered slopes in a changing climate. E-Unsat conf Paris 2016. E3S Web of Conferences, 9, 04009, 7p.

Lamont-Black J, Hall JA, Glendinning S, White CP, Jones CJFP. 2012. Stabilisation of a railway embankment using electrokinetic geosynthetics. Engineering Geology Special Publication, 26, 125-139.

Lee, C. and Wilkinson, D.J., 2019. A Review of Stochastic Block Models and Extensions for Graph Clustering. arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00114.

Loveridge, F.A., Spink, T.W., O’Brien, A.S., Briggs, K.M. and Butcher, D., 2010. The impact of climate and climate change on infrastructure slopes, with particular reference to southern England. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(4), pp.461-472.

Mendes, J., Gallipoli, D., Tarantino, A. and Toll, D., 2018. On the development of an Ultra-High Capacity Tensiometer capable of measuring water tensions to 7 MPa. Géotechnique, pp.1-5.

Milner, P., Gillespie, C.S. and Wilkinson, D.J., 2013. Moment closure based parameter inference of stochastic kinetic models. Statistics and Computing, 23(2), pp.287-295.

Muddle, D., Briggs, K., Dashwood, C. and Dijkstra, T., 2015, September. The influence of slope geology on landslide occurrence during extreme rainfall. In XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2015.

Owen, J., Wilkinson, D.J. and Gillespie, C.S., 2015. Likelihood free inference for Markov processes: a comparison. Statistical applications in genetics and molecular biology, 14(2), pp.189-209.

Postance, B, Hillier, J Dijkstra, T and Dixon, N (2017). Comparing threshold definition techniques for rainfall-induced landslides: A national assessment using rainfall radar. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms. 43(2), February 2018, Pages: 553–560. doi: 10.1002/esp.4202.

Postance, B, Hillier, J, Dijkstra, T and Dixon, N, (2017). Extending natural hazard impacts: an assessment of landslide disruptions on a national road transportation network. Environmental Research Letters, 12(1), p.014010. 11p.

Postance, B, Hillier, J, Dixon, N, and T Dijkstra (2015). Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards. EGU General Assembly 2015. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-3677

Postance, B, Hillier, J, Dixon, N, and Dijkstra, T (2016). Characterising regional landslide initiation thresholds in Scotland, UK using NIMROD c-band precipitation radar and the BGS National Landslide Database. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 18. EGU2016-4480

Postance, B, Hillier, J, Dixon, N, and Dijkstra, T (2016). Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 18. EGU2016-4439

Sellers R, Dixon N, Dijkstra TA, Gunn DA, Chambers JE, Jackson PD (2010) Electrical resistivity tomography for earthwork condition appraisal. In: Williams AL, Pinches GM, Chin CY, McMorran TJ, Massey CI (Eds) Geologically Active, Procs. IAEG Congress 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, 5-10 Sept 2010. EAGE, 1811-1818.

Smethurst, J.A., Briggs, K.M., Powrie, W., Ridley, A. and Butcher, D.J.E., 2015. Mechanical and hydrological impacts of tree removal on a clay fill railway embankment. Géotechnique, 65(11), pp.869-882.

Smethurst, J.A., Smith, A., Uhlemann, S., Wooff, C., Chambers, J., Hughes, P., Lenart, S., Saroglou, H., Springman, S.M., Löfroth, H. and Hughes, D., 2017. Current and future role of instrumentation and monitoring in the performance of transport infrastructure slopes. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 50(3), pp.271-286.

Stirling RA, Davie CT, Glendinning S. Multiphase modelling of desiccation cracking in the near-surface of compacted soils. In: XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development. 2015, Edinburgh, UK: ICE Publishing.

Stirling RA, Glendinning S, Davie CT. 2017. Modelling the deterioration of the near surface caused by drying induced cracking. Applied Clay Sciences, 146, 176-185.

Stirling RA, Hughes P, Davie CT, Glendinning S.2015.  Tensile behaviour of unsaturated compacted clay soils — A direct assessment method. Applied Clay Science 2015, 112-113, 123-133.

Stirling RA, Hughes PN, Davie CT, Glendinning S. 2014. Cyclic relationship between saturation and tensile strength in the near-surface zone of infrastructure embankments. In: Khalili K, Russell A, Koshghalb A, ed. Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications. London: CRC Press, 2014, pp.1501-1505.

Tang, A.M., Hughes, P.N., Dijkstra, T.A., Askarinejad, A., Brenčič, M., Cui, Y.J., Diez, J.J., Firgi, T., Gajewska, B., Gentile, F., Grossi, G., Jommi, C., Kehagia, F., Koda, E., ter Maat, H.W, Lenart, S, Lourenco, S, Oliveira, M, Osinski, P, Springman, S.M., Stirling, R., Toll, D.G, and van Beek, V. (2018). Atmosphere–vegetation–soil interactions in a climate change context; impact of changing conditions on engineered transport infrastructure slopes in Europe. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, pp.qjegh2017-103.

Tinoco, J., Gomes Correia, A., Cortez, P. and Toll, D.G., 2018. Data-Driven Model for Stability Condition Prediction of Soil Embankments Based on Visual Data Features. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 32(4), p.04018027.

Tinoco, J., Correia, A.G., Cortez, P. and Toll, D., 2018, November. Artificial Neural Networks for Rock and Soil Cutting Slopes Stability Condition Prediction. In International Congress and Exhibition “Sustainable Civil Infrastructures: Innovative Infrastructure Geotechnology” (pp. 105-114). Springer, Cham.

Toll, D.G., Hughes, P.N. and Asquith, J.D., 2016. Soil water retention behaviour for an instrumented embankment. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 9, p. 10013). EDP Sciences.

Toll, D.G., Mendes, J., Gallipoli, D., Glendinning, S. and Hughes, P.N., 2012. Investigating the impacts of climate change on slopes: field measurements. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications, 26(1), pp.151-161.

Toll, D.G., Lourenco, S.D.N., Mendes, J., Gallipoli, D., Evans, F.D., Augarde, C.E., Cui, Y.J., Tang, A.M., Rojas, J.C., Pagano, L. and Mancuso, C., 2011, February. Soil suction monitoring for landslides and slopes. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 44, 23–33.

Walsh C, Burke S, Glendinning S, Dawson R. 2016 Alternative business models for flood risk management infrastructure. In: 3rd European Conference on Flood Risk Management (FLOODrisk 2016). 2016, Lyon, France: EDP Sciences.

Walsh CL, Glendinning S, Castán-Broto V, Dewberry E, Powell M. 2015. Are wildcard events on infrastructure systems opportunities for transformational change?. Futures, 67, 1-10.

Walsh CL, Glendinning S, Dawson RJ, England K, Martin M, Watkins CL, Wilson R, Glenis V, McLoughlin A, Parker D. 2013. Collaborative platform to facilitate engineering decision-making. Proceedings of the ICE – Engineering Sustainability 2013, 166(2), 98-107.

Walsh CL, Glendinning S, Dewberry E, CastánBroto V, Powell M. 2013. Adaptive, Integrated Infrastructure: creating new learning in response to system shocks. In: Sustainable Built Environment for Now and the Future., Hanoi, Vietnam.

Walsh CL, Glendinning S, Dewberry E, Castán Broto V, Powell M. 2012. Radical transformation towards resilient infrastructure. In: Resilient Cities 2012: 3rd Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaptation, Bonn, Germany: ICLEI.

Wadsworth, F.B., Vasseur, J., Llewellin, E.W., Dobson, K.J., Colombier, M., von Aulock, F.W., Fife, J.L., Wiesmaier, S., Hess, K.U., Scheu, B. and Lavallée, Y., 2017. Topological inversions in coalescing granular media control fluid-flow regimes. Physical Review E, 96(3), p.033113.

Wilks JH, Dijkstra TA and N Dixon (2012). Forecasting transport infrastructure slope failures in a changing climate.  Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Landslides (ISL) and the 2nd North American Symposium on Landslides, June 2-8, 2012, Banff, Alberta, Canada.